17m 52sLenght

LIKE VIDEO, SUBSCRIBE THE CHANNEL Large scale (peri-)urban dairy farming is mainly important in South Asia. Animals (frequently buffaloes) fresh in milk or just before calving are purchased from the rural areas and transported to the cities where they are kept under zero-grazing conditions. All feed is purchased and at the end of the lactation the animals are generally slaughtered. Unit size varies from around 10 to over 100 lactating animals, also milk colonies with thousands of animals occur. An attractive market within the large urban population for a perishable product like milk is one of the reasons that an urban production system has developed: it considerably shortens the distance between the milking animal and the consumer, thereby reducing the risk of spoilage and marketing cost. The availability of cheap by-products from the food processing industry is another for the existence of this system. The system is increasing in importance in and around cities in many developing countries. The large volumes of waste can cause soil, water and air pollution. Most effects are caused by emissions from manure in the form of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and various heavy metals. Emissions from manure in the stables, during storage, after application on soils or when manure is simply disposed of. Losses depend on the system of housing and manure management. Sometimes there is a ready market for the solid manure from near-by vegetable growers. Urine and wastewater is disposed of through the public sewage system or it simply seeps into the ground water or is discharged on the surface water. The livestock in the city areas are also a hygienic and sanitary hazard. The livestock causes a bad smell which is a nuisance especially in residential areas. In this form large-scale dairy production the best dairy animals (buffaloes and cattle) are purchased from the rural areas, milked as long as possible in the city and subsequently slaughtered. This is a permanent drain on the genetic quality of the livestock in the rural areas and these genetic resources are gradually being eroded resulting in a serious loss of animal genetic resources. The following matrix indicates the most common Industrial risks associated with urban/ peri-urban dairy farming.